Conflict AM-86 - History

Conflict AM-86 - History

Conflict
Strife or battle, especially a prolonged struggle.
I
(AM-86: dp. 296; 1. 173'8"; b. 23', dr. 11'7"; s. 17 k.;
cpl. 66; a. 1 3"; cl. Adroit)

The first Conflict (AM-85) was launched 18 April 1942 by Commercial Iron Works, Portland, Oreg.; and commissioned 7 September 1942, Lieutenant R. W. Luther, USNR, in command.

Clearing Seattle 7 December 1942, Conduct called at San Francisco and Pearl Harbor before arriving at Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, 29 January 1943. From this base she sailed on antisubmarine patrols in the Solomons and escorted convoys throughout the Solomons and the Florida Islands until 2 July 1945. On 1 June 1944 her name was canceled and her classification changed to PC-1589.

Arriving at Noumea, New Caledonia 4 July 1945 PC-1589 visited Auckland, New Zealand, from 10 to 21 July, then escorted Navy crash boats to the Ellice, Wallis, Fiji, and New Hebrides Islands. After the end of the war she remained in New Caledonia serving as pilot ship until 7 March 1946 when she got underway for an overhaul at Pago Pago, Samoa, sailing on to arrive in Pearl Harbor 1 May. She decommissioned 31 May 1946, and transferred to the War Assets Administration for disposal 3 December 1947

PC-1589 received two battle stars for World War II service


Contents

  • Introduction: whose peace is it anyway? connecting Somali and international peacemaking
  • Endless war: a brief history of the Somali conflict
  • Diplomacy in a failed state: international mediation in Somalia
  • Mediating Djibouti
  • Regional engagement in Somalia: a conversation with HE Engineer Mahboub M. Maalim
  • Security and stabilization in Somalia
  • An African solution to Somalia? A conversation with Nicolas Bwakira
  • Somali peace agreements: fuelling factionalism
  • Political representation in Somalia: citizenship, clanism and territoriality
  • Getting engaged? The United Nations and Somalia: a conversation with Charles Petrie
  • Private sector peacemaking: business and reconstruction in Somalia
  • How Somali-led peace processes work: section introduction
  • Building peace in south central Somalia: the role of elders
  • Community peace processes in south central Somalia
  • A conversation with Sultan Said Garasse
  • Order out of chaos: Somali customary law in Puntland and Somaliland
  • The role of Somaliland elders in making and keeping peace: a conversation with Hajji Abdi Hussein Yusuf
  • Somali women and peacebuilding
  • Securing Mogadishu: neighbourhood watches
  • Business as usual: Bakaaro market in war
  • Wajid district: an 'island of peace'
  • Towards a culture of peace: poetry, drama and music in Somali society
  • Somaliland: 'home grown' peacemaking and political reconstruction
  • Building structures for peace: how to administer Mogadishu?
  • Experiences of constitution making in Somalia, Puntland and Somaliland: sub-section introduction
  • An opportunity for peacebuilding dialogue? Somalia's constitution-making process
  • Making the Somaliland constitution and its role in democratisation and peace
  • Puntland constitutional review process
  • Islam and Somali social order
  • Distant voices and the ties that bind: identity, politics and Somali diaspora youth
  • Voices of the dispossessed: displacement and peacebuilding in the Somali regions
  • How does it end? Towards a vision of a Somali state
  • Key Texts: Somalia
  • Profiles: Somalia
  • Chronology: Somalia
  • Further reading: Somalia

1) Churchill did not broadcast the speech.

Rather, he gave it in the House of Commons, beginning at 3.40 pm and sitting down at 4.14. By contrast with some later occasions – notably his ‘finest hour’ speech of 18 June – he did not repeat it over the airwaves that evening. The thought simply does not seem to have occurred to him or to anyone else. Instead, a BBC announcer read sections of it during the nightly news. You have, of course, heard him delivering it, but he did not make that recording until 1949, when he was persuaded to do so for the benefit of posterity.

Few people, when they hear the speech on radio or TV documentaries, are aware that they are listening to Churchill speaking not in 1940 but nine years later.Strangely, though, there is a popular myth that the speech was broadcast at the time, not by Churchill himself, but by an actor, Norman Shelley. Shelley did make a phonograph recording of a different Churchill speech in the aftermath of the 1942 victory at El Alamein although what use was made of it, if any, is unknown. He never claimed to have impersonated the Prime Minister over the airwaves, and though many historians have pointed out that the story is false, it seems impossible to kill it.


World War II Pacific Theatre operations [ edit | edit source ]

From 20 December 1942 to 4 March 1943 Constant escorted convoys between San Francisco, California, and Pearl Harbor. She sailed from Pearl Harbor 8 March for Espiritu Santo, arriving 25 March for local escort duty, operating from Espiritu Santo and Noumea in support of the Guadalcanal operation.

On 3 September 1943 she arrived at Tulagi and remained in the Solomons on inter-island escort and minesweeping duty with occasional convoy voyages to Nouméa and Espiritu Santo until 3 April 1944 when she steamed to Auckland, New Zealand for a brief overhaul. She returned to Port Purvis in the Solomons 13 May.


Contents

The Israeli–Palestinian conflict has its roots in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the birth of major nationalist movements among the Jews and among the Arabs, both geared towards attaining sovereignty for their people in the Middle East. [23] The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government in 1917 during the First World War announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine. [24] The collision between those two movements in southern Levant upon the emergence of Palestinian nationalism after the Franco-Syrian War in the 1920s escalated into the Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine in 1930s and 1940s, and expanded into the wider Arab–Israeli conflict later on. [25]

The return of several hard-line Palestinian Arab nationalists, under the emerging leadership of Haj Amin al-Husseini, from Damascus to Mandatory Palestine marked the beginning of Palestinian Arab nationalist struggle towards establishment of a national home for Arabs of Palestine. [26] Amin al-Husseini, the architect of the Palestinian Arab national movement, immediately marked Jewish national movement and Jewish immigration to Palestine as the sole enemy to his cause, [27] initiating large-scale riots against the Jews as early as 1920 in Jerusalem and in 1921 in Jaffa. Among the results of the violence was the establishment of the Jewish paramilitary force Haganah. In 1929, a series of violent anti-Jewish riots was initiated by the Arab leadership. The riots resulted in massive Jewish casualties in Hebron and Safed, and the evacuation of Jews from Hebron and Gaza. [23]

In the early 1930s, the Arab national struggle in Palestine had drawn many Arab nationalist militants from across the Middle East, such as Sheikh Izaddin al-Qassam from Syria, who established the Black Hand militant group and had prepared the grounds for the 1936 Arab revolt. Following the death of al-Qassam at the hands of the British in late 1935, tensions erupted in 1936 into the Arab general strike and general boycott. The strike soon deteriorated into violence and the bloodily repressed 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine against the British and the Jews. [25] In the first wave of organized violence, lasting until early 1937, most of the Arab groups were defeated by the British and forced expulsion of much of the Arab leadership was performed. The revolt led to the establishment of the Peel Commission towards partitioning of Palestine, though it was subsequently rejected by the Palestinian Arabs. The two main Jewish leaders, Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion, accepted the recommendations but some secondary Jewish leaders did not like it. [28] [29] [30]

The renewed violence, which had sporadically lasted until the beginning of World War II, ended with around 5,000 casualties, mostly from the Arab side. With the eruption of World War II, the situation in Mandatory Palestine calmed down. It allowed a shift towards a more moderate stance among Palestinian Arabs, under the leadership of the Nashashibi clan and even the establishment of the Jewish–Arab Palestine Regiment under British command, fighting Germans in North Africa. The more radical exiled faction of al-Husseini however tended to cooperation with Nazi Germany, and participated in the establishment of a pro-Nazi propaganda machine throughout the Arab world. Defeat of Arab nationalists in Iraq and subsequent relocation of al-Husseini to Nazi-occupied Europe tied his hands regarding field operations in Palestine, though he regularly demanded that the Italians and the Germans bomb Tel Aviv. By the end of World War II, a crisis over the fate of the Holocaust survivors from Europe led to renewed tensions between the Yishuv and the Palestinian Arab leadership. Immigration quotas were established by the British, while on the other hand illegal immigration and Zionist insurgency against the British was increasing. [23]

On 29 November 1947, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted Resolution 181(II) [31] recommending the adoption and implementation of a plan to partition Palestine into an Arab state, a Jewish state and the City of Jerusalem. [32] On the next day, Palestine was already swept by violence. For four months, under continuous Arab provocation and attack, the Yishuv was usually on the defensive while occasionally retaliating. [33] The Arab League supported the Arab struggle by forming the volunteer-based Arab Liberation Army, supporting the Palestinian Arab Army of the Holy War, under the leadership of Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni and Hasan Salama. On the Jewish side, the civil war was managed by the major underground militias – the Haganah, Irgun and Lehi, strengthened by numerous Jewish veterans of World War II and foreign volunteers. By spring 1948, it was already clear that the Arab forces were nearing a total collapse, while Yishuv forces gained more and more territory, creating a large scale refugee problem of Palestinian Arabs. [23] Popular support for the Palestinian Arabs throughout the Arab world led to sporadic violence against Jewish communities of the Middle East and North Africa, creating an opposite refugee wave.

Following the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel on 14 May 1948, the Arab League decided to intervene on behalf of Palestinian Arabs, marching their forces into former British Palestine, beginning the main phase of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. [32] The overall fighting, leading to around 15,000 casualties, resulted in cease-fire and armistice agreements of 1949, with Israel holding much of the former Mandate territory, Jordan occupying and later annexing the West Bank and Egypt taking over the Gaza Strip, where the All-Palestine Government was declared by the Arab League on 22 September 1948. [25]

Through the 1950s, Jordan and Egypt supported the Palestinian Fedayeen militants' cross-border attacks into Israel, while Israel carried out reprisal operations in the host countries. The 1956 Suez Crisis resulted in a short-term Israeli occupation of the Gaza Strip and exile of the All-Palestine Government, which was later restored with Israeli withdrawal. The All-Palestine Government was completely abandoned by Egypt in 1959 and was officially merged into the United Arab Republic, to the detriment of the Palestinian national movement. Gaza Strip then was put under the authority of the Egyptian military administrator, making it a de facto military occupation. In 1964, however, a new organization, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), was established by Yasser Arafat. [32] It immediately won the support of most Arab League governments and was granted a seat in the Arab League.

The 1967 Six-Day War exerted a significant effect upon Palestinian nationalism, as Israel gained military control of the West Bank from Jordan and the Gaza Strip from Egypt. Consequently, the PLO was unable to establish any control on the ground and established its headquarters in Jordan, home to hundreds of thousands of Palestinians, and supported the Jordanian army during the War of Attrition, which included the Battle of Karameh. However, the Palestinian base in Jordan collapsed with the Jordanian–Palestinian civil war in 1970. The PLO defeat by the Jordanians caused most of the Palestinian militants to relocate to South Lebanon, where they soon took over large areas, creating the so-called "Fatahland".

Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon peaked in the early 1970s, as Lebanon was used as a base to launch attacks on northern Israel and airplane hijacking campaigns worldwide, which drew Israeli retaliation. During the Lebanese Civil War, Palestinian militants continued to launch attacks against Israel while also battling opponents within Lebanon. In 1978, the Coastal Road massacre led to the Israeli full-scale invasion known as Operation Litani. Israeli forces, however, quickly withdrew from Lebanon, and the attacks against Israel resumed. In 1982, following an assassination attempt on one of its diplomats by Palestinians, the Israeli government decided to take sides in the Lebanese Civil War and the 1982 Lebanon War commenced. The initial results for Israel were successful. Most Palestinian militants were defeated within several weeks, Beirut was captured, and the PLO headquarters were evacuated to Tunisia in June by Yasser Arafat's decision. [25] However, Israeli intervention in the civil war also led to unforeseen results, including small-scale conflict between Israel and Syria. By 1985, Israel withdrew to a 10 km occupied a strip of South Lebanon, while the low-intensity conflict with Shia militants escalated. [23] Those Iranian-supported Shia groups gradually consolidated into Hizbullah and Amal, operated against Israel, and allied with the remnants of Palestinian organizations to launch attacks on Galilee through the late 1980s. By the 1990s, Palestinian organizations in Lebanon were largely inactive. [ citation needed ]

The first Palestinian uprising began in 1987 as a response to escalating attacks and the endless occupation. By the early 1990s, international efforts to settle the conflict had begun, in light of the success of the Egyptian–Israeli peace treaty of 1982. Eventually, the Israeli–Palestinian peace process led to the Oslo Accords of 1993, allowing the PLO to relocate from Tunisia and take ground in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, establishing the Palestinian National Authority. The peace process also had significant opposition among radical Islamic elements of Palestinian society, such as Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad, who immediately initiated a campaign of attacks targeting Israelis. Following hundreds of casualties and a wave of radical anti-government propaganda, Israeli Prime Minister Rabin was assassinated by an Israeli fanatic who objected to the peace initiative. This struck a serious blow to the peace process, from which the newly elected government of Israel in 1996 backed off. [23]

Following several years of unsuccessful negotiations, the conflict re-erupted as the Second Intifada in September 2000. [25] The violence, escalating into an open conflict between the Palestinian National Security Forces and the Israel Defense Forces, lasted until 2004/2005 and led to approximately 130 fatalities. In 2005, Israeli Prime Minister Sharon ordered the removal of Israeli settlers and soldiers from Gaza. Israel and its Supreme Court formally declared an end to occupation, saying it "had no effective control over what occurred" in Gaza. [34] However, the United Nations, Human Rights Watch and many other international bodies and NGOs continue to consider Israel to be the occupying power of the Gaza Strip as Israel controls Gaza Strip's airspace, territorial waters and controls the movement of people or goods in or out of Gaza by air or sea. [34] [35] [36]

In 2006, Hamas won a plurality of 44% in the Palestinian parliamentary election. Israel responded it would begin economic sanctions unless Hamas agreed to accept prior Israeli-Palestinian agreements, forswear violence, and recognize Israel's right to exist, which Hamas rejected. [37] After internal Palestinian political struggle between Fatah and Hamas erupted into the Battle of Gaza (2007), Hamas took full control of the area. [38] In 2007, Israel imposed a naval blockade on the Gaza Strip, and cooperation with Egypt allowed a ground blockade of the Egyptian border

The tensions between Israel and Hamas escalated until late 2008, when Israel launched operation Cast Lead upon Gaza, resulting in thousands of civilian casualties and billions of dollars in damage. By February 2009, a ceasefire was signed with international mediation between the parties, though the occupation and small and sporadic eruptions of violence continued. [39]

In 2011, a Palestinian Authority attempt to gain UN membership as a fully sovereign state failed. In Hamas-controlled Gaza, sporadic rocket attacks on Israel and Israeli air raids still take place. [40] [41] [42] [43] In November 2012, the representation of Palestine in UN was upgraded to a non-member observer State, and its mission title was changed from "Palestine (represented by PLO)" to "State of Palestine".


Stroke and the coronavirus vaccine

The Stroke Association has received a number of queries from stroke survivors reporting that they have been denied an appointment to receive the Covid-19 vaccine as part of priority group 6, for a variety of reasons.

We would like to remind GPs and relevant healthcare professionals that all stroke survivors – regardless of type of stroke (including subarachnoid haemorrhages), time lapsed or severity of disability – are in group 6 in the Green Book priority list and so are entitled to their vaccine in this phase.

People with neurological conditions, including stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA), are included on page 10 of the Green Book under the ‘clinical risk groups 16 years of age and over who should receive COVID-19 immunisation’. Therefore, all stroke survivors must be offered a vaccine in priority group 6, regardless of other variables.

This guidance has been reiterated in NHS England & Improvement’s latest Health and Care Leaders bulletin and Primary Care Bulletin.

Having an effective vaccine is the best way to protect the most vulnerable, our friends and our families, and will save tens of thousands of lives. The Stroke Association encourages everyone to attend their vaccine appointment.


Eastern Han Palace Wars

Following the death of Emperor Zhang in 88 A.D., the Han Empire was almost exclusively ruled by boys in their early teens, a circumstance that set up palace intrigue and directly led to its fall.

During the emperor’s early years of rule, the power was in the hand of his mother, who leaned on her own family to keep control.

The young emperors were kept isolated with eunuchs, who became their closest allies and often co-conspirators. This dynamic lead to several instances of eunuchs slaughtering families to help the emperor maintain control.


Why has Myanmar endured so many ethnic conflicts?

Myanmar is a diverse country, with the state recognizing more than one hundred ethnic groups. Forming roughly two-thirds of the population, ethnic Burmans, known as the Bamar, have enjoyed a privileged position in society and hold a majority of government and military positions. Many ethnic minority groups, on the other hand, have faced systemic discrimination, a lack of economic opportunities and development in their regions, minimal representation in government, and abuses at the hands of the military.

Since independence, discrimination has been ingrained in Myanmar’s laws and political system. For example, citizenship is largely based on ethnicity. The 1982 Citizenship Law states that only members of ethnic groups that lived in Myanmar before 1823, when the British first occupied parts of the country, are full citizens. This has rendered hundreds of thousands of lifelong Myanmar residents and members of entire minority groups, particularly the Rohingya, effectively stateless [PDF]. Under the 2008 constitution, only full citizens are entitled to most rights, such as nondiscrimination, equal opportunity, and freedom of expression. The constitution also prevents those not considered to be full citizens from participating in political processes such as voting and running for office.

Anti-Muslim sentiment has also been on the rise in predominantly Buddhist Myanmar. Buddhist extremists, who promote the supremacy of Buddhism, have attacked Muslims and spread hate speech.

Divisions purposely created under British colonial rule and ongoing discrimination have fueled lengthy armed conflicts between the Tatmadaw and more than twenty ethnic armed organizations, as well as dozens of smaller militia groups, producing what some analysts have described as the world’s longest continuing civil war. Following the country’s independence, several ethnic armed organizations fought for greater autonomy. Tensions were exacerbated when the military junta took over in 1962 and curtailed ethnic minorities’ rights.

Fighting has primarily occurred in Myanmar’s border areas [PDF], with the Buddhist and pro-Rakhine (not Rohingya) Arakan Army in Rakhine State the Karen National Liberation Army in Kayin State the Kachin Independence Army in Kachin State and the Shan State Army and the United Wa State Army in Shan State among other groups. Tens of thousands of people have been killed in the conflicts. In recent years, human rights monitors have documented the Tatmadaw’s abuses against civilians, particularly in the states of Chin and Rakhine these include extrajudicial killings, forced labor, rape, torture, and the use of child soldiers. The instability has also allowed Myanmar to become a global center for illicit drug production and transshipment, particularly in areas of Shan State.

Nearly one million people are believed to have fled abroad and hundreds of thousands are displaced internally. Most of these refugees in recent years have been Rohingya, an ethnic Muslim minority that has faced decades of repression. In 2016 and 2017, the Tatmadaw and local security forces mounted a brutal campaign against the Rohingya, killing thousands of people and razing hundreds of villages. Rights groups and UN officials suspect that the military committed genocide against the Rohingya. In 2019, Gambia filed the first international lawsuit against Myanmar at the International Court of Justice, accusing the country of violating the UN Genocide Convention. Suu Kyi has denied that ethnic cleansing is taking place, and a final ruling could take years. Most Rohingya have sought refuge in Bangladesh, where resources and land to protect refugees are limited. Bangladesh has been in discussions with Myanmar about repatriating Rohingya refugees.

The governments of Thein Sein and Suu Kyi attempted to negotiate a nationwide cease-fire with several ethnic armed organizations, but efforts largely failed. In 2015, only eight such groups signed a cease-fire agreement with the government and the Tatmadaw, and violence continues in many communities.


A brief history of Arctic conflict

Religious conflict and colonial violence contributed to the establishment of the eight modern Arctic states: Canada, the United States, Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and Russia. Early interstate conflict between Arctic nations – including Canada and the US and Norway and Sweden – further influenced the foundation of modern Arctic relations. As discussed in Evans and Østhagen’s article, Fisheries Disputes: The real potential for Arctic conflict, some of the earliest interstate conflicts among Arctic stakeholders involved the delineation and management of natural resources such as seal and fish stocks.

Arctic resources continued to play a critical role in national strategies into the twentieth century. By the time World War II began in 1939, Germany was dependent on Sweden for over 50% of its iron ore – an element critical to German military and economic capability – and was further dependent on Norway for transit of Swedish minerals to Germany. 1) Mann C and Jörgensen C (2003) Hitler’s Arctic War: The German Campaigns in Norway, Finland, and the USSR, 1940-1945. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin’s Press. In their article, Knowledge is Power: Greenland, Great Powers, and Lessons from the Second World War, Rogers and Gjerstad analyze the strategic role that Greenland played in providing a different kind of resource to forces in World War II: information, which was used in the planning of military operations on the European continent. 2) Arctic and subarctic ports, transportation infrastructure, and natural resources were also critical to the war effort in the Soviet Union. Upon the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the Axis Powers sought to gain control of strategic northern areas such as the port city of Murmansk, a critical entry point for wartime aid to the Soviet Union and the mining town of Petsamo, see Johansen C (2016) Hitler’s Nordic Ally?: Finland and the Total War 1939-1945. Pen and Sword.

The Arctic remained a pivotal military theater throughout the Cold War. During this period, the Arctic was characterized by high levels of militarization, which included the regional placement of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), long-range bombers, nuclear weapons, and a host of additional military resources. Despite such militarization, potential for Cold War Arctic conflict was mitigated via a number of mechanisms, two of which will be explored in this series. First, Teeple’s article, The Impact of the Post-Arms Control Context and Great Power Competition in the Arctic, looks at the destabilizing effect of Cold War militarization and how this destabilization led to international cooperation on arms control. Second, Devyatkin’s article, Environmental Détente: What can we learn from the Cold War to manage today’s Arctic tensions and climate crisis?, explores the influence of bilateral cooperation in Arctic science on broader US-Soviet diplomacy.


9 Comments

Thank you, Senator James Webb for your beautiful and inspiring documentary film.
I was thrilled beyond words when I watched “Born Fighting.” I am 86 years old and only now realize that my hillbilly mother of Cartoogechaye, Macon County, NC had been telling the truth all those years ago when she said we were Scots-Irish. I had no idea who the Scots-Irish were. What a heritage! I wouldn’t trade my hillbilly Scots-Irish roots for all the celebrity or royalty in the world. At long last I know who I am. My DNA, and that of my descendants, is that of poor, proud, hardworking, God fearing people who would, and did, stand up the devil himself to defend their freedoms and who played a major role in the building of our great nation and continue to protect it from those who would do us harm.

Does anyone know when “Born Fighting” will be available on DVD and if I can reserve a copy?

I would love to purchase a DVD of this program. Please let me know where it is available. Thank you, Marti

Marti and Ruth, I emailed Smithsonian Channel several weeks ago, asking about the DVD. I never heard word back, but I’m keeping an eye open for a release date. If you find it first, let us know!

Currently watching the series on the Smithsonian Channel. A fantastic depiction of history as I was taught it and very seldom hear it mentioned in other documentaries. Would really like to get a copy of this on DVD – when will it be available?

Where can I purchase the dvd – “Born Fighting”

Good news. No need to buy the DVD. You can watch Born Fighting for free. It does mean downloading Veoh, a special application:

Hi, Greetings from Ulster! For anyone who doesn’t have a Veoh account, you can now watch the full length documentary on YouTube:

You can watch more videos about the Scots-Irish on my website:

Great blog by the way! I love reading about the culture of our Appalachian cousins. Have a great new year!

Nonsense and poppycock! The Border Scots are the source of all villainy in North America, Britain and Ireland. If they’d have all been strangled in their cradles, the World would have been spared much pain and anger.

What a load of ludicrous theories. Scots irish americans,no matter how tenuous the connection, are world champions at blowing their own trumpets and James Webb is the pinnacle. Amazing how many of them have quintessential English names, including Mr. Webb himself. It must be devastating for them.


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