c. 275 BCE
Ptolemy II invades the Meroitic Nubian kingdom and annexes Lower Nubia.
c. 205 BCE - c. 185 BCE
Upper Egypt and Lower Nubia secede from the Ptolemaic Kingdom with the support of Meroe. Two Egyptians, Horwennefer and his successor Ankhwennefer are declared as Pharaoh in the now independent territories.